The attractiveness of starch usage in the food and non-food industries could be ascribed to its cheapness, abundance, biodegradability and non-toxic nature. Starches are easily obtained from various botanical sources, e.g., cereal, legume, root and tuber and green fruit . The need for native starch (NS) modification is due to the inherent deficiencies in its properties. Native starches (NSs) are insoluble in water, easily retrograde with associated syneresis and most significantly gels and pastes produced by NSs are unstable at high temperature, pH and mechanical stress. Due to these inherent NS inadequacies, there is need for modification to better the functional and physicochemical properties for suitable industrial applications. Modification of starches can be broadly divided into four-physical, chemical, biotechnological and enzymatic or their combinations properly called dual modification [2-6]. Amongst them, physical methods are more acceptable since they are general chemical-free and hence considered safer for human consumption . Physical modification of starch is more connected to the emerging concept of 'green technology' or 'sustainable technology' for environmentally friendly applications . Physical modification could be generally classified into thermal and non-thermal modification. The thermal modification consists of pre-gelatinization and the hydrothermal processes-annealing (ANN) and heat moisture treatment (HMT). In pre-gelatinization, the granular structure of starch is totally destroyed as a result of heating, there is de-polymerization and fragmentation and so the molecular integrity of the starch is not preserved. In disparity, ANN and HMT involve heating starch in water at a temperature below the gelatinization temperature (GT) and above the glass transition temperature (Tg). Consequentially, the granular structure of starch is preserved.
The physical non-thermal processes involve methods dealing with the preservation of food as a result of their impact on microbial organisms that cause fermentation. These are processes that use pressure, ultrasound (US), pulsed electric field (PEF) and radiation to manipulate the physicochemical and functional properties of starches. Generally, the purpose of starch modification is to better its properties for various applications. The aim of this overview is to discuss the recent trend in the physical modification of various starches. Furthermore, unit operations, physicochemical properties and applications of the various physical modification methods will also be discussed.
To make the NSs convenient for industrial applications, these starches are often modified to acquire desired properties such as solubility, heat tolerance, texture and adhesion [9-11]. Broadly, physical modification of various starches can be classified into thermal and non-thermal processes. Another classification of physical modification is based on whether starch granular structures are destroyed or preserved. The thermal processes are pre-gelatinization and hydrothermal processes (ANN and HMT). In the former the starch molecular integrity is smashed and destroyed, but they are preserved in the latter (ANN and HMT). Non-thermal physical modification of starches involves the utilization of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) [12,13], ultrasound (US) [14-16], pulsed electric fields (PEF) treatment [17,18] and microwave treatment  to alter the physicochemical and functional properties of starches in order to achieve desired products. There are many merits associated with physical modification, it is simple, cheap and does not involve the introduction of chemicals or biological agents into the modified starch [2,20]. Rapid development is taking place in the field of physical modification as a result of the above stated quality linked to it. Recent trend in physical modification are as follows: corona electrical discharges , PEF treatment , micronization in vacuum ball mill , mechanical activation with stirring ball mill , instantaneous controlled pressure drop (DIC) process , multiple deep freezing and thawing , osmotic pressure treatment , thermally inhibited treatment (dry heating) , superheated starch  and iterated syneresis . These new physical methods of starch modification are summarized in Table 1.
The pre-gelatinization process is achieved by drum drying, spray drying and extrusion cooking. The properties associated with PGS
permits instant dissolution in cold water without heating. Due to the harsh treatment (gelatinization and severe drying) used to obtain PGS, it is porous, possessed higher water absorption index (WAI) and water solubility index (WSI) than that of the NS .
PGS has been reported to be amorphous when studied by X-ray diffractomtery (XRD) and the irregular starch granules of the NS altered to concave spherical shape by pre-gelatinization as revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The higher WAI and WSI values of PGS when compared to the NS were ascribed to their higher macromolecular disorganization, degradation and weaker associative forces between them .
PGS with various degrees of gelatinization and degradation could be obtained through extrusion . According to the latter author, drum-dried starch possessed much increased water absorption, swelling and solubilization than other methods of PGS production and usually accompanied by decreased apparent viscosity.
Annealing (ANN): ANN involves the heating of starch granules in excess water (76% w/w) or at intermediate water content (40% w/w) and held at a temperature below the GT and above the Tg [39-43]. Many studies by researchers have shown that annealing resulted in alterations to starch structure (increase in granular stability, starch chain interactions[within amorphous and crystalline domains of the granule], perfection of starch crystallites, formation of double helices and compartmentalization of amylopectin-amylopectin (AP-AP), amylose-amylopectin (AMAP) and AM-AM helices) and properties (elevation of starch GTs, narrowing of GT range, decrease in swelling factor and AML
and increase in hot and cold paste viscosities) . It has been documented that ANN of lentil, smooth pea and wrinkled pea starches decrease granules swelling and amylose leaching (AML), and increase GTs, thermal stability and susceptibility towards digestion by alpha-amylase [44,45]. These authors ascribed the alterations to increase in crystalline perfection and increased interaction between AM-AM and AM-AP chains.
Most annealed starches are from potato, rice, wheat, maize, sago, pea and cassava. ANN of fermented and unfermented starches decreased SP and solubility, peak, setback and setback viscosities of pasting . It also brings about an increased in peak temperature, transition temperatures and enthalpy of gelatinization with narrower temperature ranges. The polymorph of annealed fermented and unfermented cassava starch altered from CA- to A-type [46,47]. Finally in this sub-section a summary of annealed cereal and tuber starches with their associated gelatinization parameters are given in Table 2.
Annealed starches could be utilized in the canned and frozen food industries  because they possessed improve thermal stability and decrease in extent of setback, respectively [53,54].
Such examples were normal corn starch  and rice starch .
In another study on breadfruit starch, after its subjection to HMT, there was no apparent change in starch granule morphology, but decreased was observed in the molecular weight and an increased in the AM content of the modified starch . The HMT-modified breadfruit starch was more thermally stable than the native starch. The increased enzyme resistance of the physically modified starch was ascribed to the rearrangement of molecular chains, more compact granule structure  and more perfect crystalline structure.
Some of the non-thermal processes are conducted at high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) [12, 13], using ultrasound effect [15, 74], pulsed electric field treatment , and microwave treatment of starches  from different botanical sources. It was reported that various non-thermal treatments impact the physicochemical properties of starch differently.
High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) is a non-thermal food processing technology that takes away some demerits of conventional thermal processing by decreasing undesirable chemical reactions which may results to undesired organoleptic properties and also impose nutritionally adverse effects .
High pressure involves using a uniform pressure throughout a product. In the food industry, pressures ranging from 400 to 900 MPa can be used . Pivotally, HHP treatment inhibits SP of starch granules, so that their viscosity is lower than heat processed starches . Additionally, starch gelatinization is obtainable at ambient temperature or below 00C with HHP treatment of starches from various botanical origins . The molecular integrity and orderliness of potato starch treated with 600 MPa for 3 min was slightly distorted by HHP, nevertheless the crystallinity of the starch was preserved. The position of localization of amorphous and semi-crystalline growth rings within the starch granules of waxy starch is not significant when subjected to high pressure treatment (650 MPa/9 min) because disruption and complete gelatinization will obviously take place . A possible application of pressurized starch could be to utilize it as a fat substitute, the starch granules might stimulate fat droplet as they are considered as micro-particles of well-defined size distribution .
Ultrasound (US) food processing technology use frequency in the range of 20 KHz to 10 MHz . US is the sound that is above the threshold of the human ear (>18 KHz). It is produced with either piezoelectric or magnetostrictive tranducers that generate high energy vibrations. These vibrations are amplified and transferred to a sonotrode or probe, which is in direct contact with the fluid [80, 81]. Some merits as a consequent of US utilization in food processing are processing time reduction, energy efficiency and eco-friendly process . Other advantages of US are reduction of processing temperature, batch or continuous process can be utilized, increased heat transfer, deactivation of enzymes and possible modification of food structure and texture . The US methods have been applied to several kinds of starch (sweet potato, tapioca, potato and corn) and polysaccharides .
When native corn starch was subjected to HPU treatment (24 KHz), the crystalline region of the modified corn starch granules was observed to be distorted . `An increase in SP, solubility and disruption of crystallinity of starch granules as studied by X-ray diffractometry were observed as a result of subjection of native granules to US treatment . The best way for molecular weight reduction of polysaccharides such as starch and chitosan is to treat their aqueous solution with 360 KHz US . The degradation of starch by applied US has been ascribed to OH radical formation and mechanochemical effects. High power ultrasound (HPU) is very significant in the following fields of food processing; filtration, crystallization, homogenization, extrusion, de-foaming, viscosity alteration, separation, emulsification and extraction. These unit operations are very important in the separation of gross product into its various components. Other applications of ultrasound include inactivation of enzymes and bacteria by splitting their cell membranes due to the violence of cavitation and the production of free radicals .
Pulsed electric field (PEF) technology is non-thermal food preservation methods which kills pathogens or spoilage micro organisms and inactivate enzymes and minimize the loss of taste, color, texture, nutrients and heat labile functional components of foods . Other merits associated to PEF are that it kills vegetative cells, no toxicity was detected and short treatment time was also observed . Recent studies documented by Hans et al.  on PEF shows that various treatments affect the physicochemical properties of starches differently. When corn starch -water suspension were processed in PEF with electric field strength of 50 KV/cm , the following results were obtained. The GT and enthalpy of the modified corn starch decrease with an increase of electric field strength. Additionally, the starch lost granule shape and the crystallinity degree were decreased significantly. Meanwhile, the peak, breakdown and final viscosities of the modified corn starch were decreased with increasing electric field. The applications of PEF in the food industries resulted in food spoilage reduction, enhance food safety by increased shell life and retains freshness of food commodities .
The importance of physically modified starches cannot be overestimated. They are generally safe and do not involve the addition of chemicals or biological agents when compared to chemical or genetical modification. The classification of physically modified starches is twofold; either based on the preservation of starch granules or its destructurization. The other classification depends on thermal or non-thermal applications to alter the physicochemical properties of starch granules. The thermal division involves pre-gelatinization and hydrothermal processes. The pre-gelatinized starches (PGSs) were obtained by subjecting the native starches to harsh treatment and drying processes. Therefore, PGSs are gelatinized, depolymerized and fragmented so that they are easily soluble in water at ambient temperature. On the other hand, hydrothermal modification involves two processes-annealing (ANN) and heat moisture treatment (HMT). Both processes consist of heating native starches in water at a temperature above the grass transition temperature but below the gelatinization temperature (GT). In ANN and HMT, since the temperature of de-structurization (GT) is not exceeded, the starch granules are preserved and movement is mostly restricted to the amorphous region in the granules. In disparity, the non-thermal processes involve the utilization of high hydrostatic pressure, ultrasound and pulsed electric field treatments to bring about alterations in the physicochemical properties in starch granules.
2. Ashogbon AO, Akintayo ET. Recent trend in the physical and chemical modification of starches from different botanical sources. Starch/Starke. 2014;66(1-2):41-57.
3. El Halal, SLM, Colussi R, et al. Structure, morphology and functionality of acetylated and oxidized barley starches. Food Chem. 2015;168:247-256.
4. Majzoobi M, Kaveh Z, Blanchard CL, Farahnaky A. Physical properties of pre-gelatinized and granular cold water swelling maize starches in presence of acetic acid. Food Hydrocoll. 2015;51:375-382.
5. Deka D, Sit N. Dual modification of taro starch by microwave and other heatmoisture treatments. Int J Biol Macromol. 2016;92:416-422.
6. Sahnoun M, Ismail N, Kammoun R. Enzymatically hydrolyzed, acetylated and dually modified corn starch: Physicocal, rheological and nutritional properties and effects on cake quality. J Food Sci Technol. 2016;53(1):481-490.
7. Kaur B, Ariffin F, Bhat R, Karim AA. Progress in starch modification in the last decade. Food Hydrocoll. 2012;26(2):398-404.
8. Zhu F. Composition, structure, physicochemical properties and modifications of cassava starch. Carbohydr Polym. 2015;122:456-480.
9. Veira FC, Sarmento SBS. Heat moisture treatment and enzymatic digestibility of Peruvian carrot, sweet potato and ginger starches. Starch/Starke.2006;60:223-232.
10. Watcharatewinkul Y, Uttapap D, Rungsardthoug V. Enzyme digestibility and acid/shear stability of heat-moisture treated canna starch. Starch/Starke. 2010;62(3-4):205-216.
11. Khunae P, Tran T, Sirivongpaisal P. Effect of heat-moisture on structural and thermal properties of rice starch differing in amylose content. Starch/Starke. 2007;59(12):593-599.
12. Blaszczak W, Fornal J, Kiseleva VI, Yurgev VP, A.I.Sergeevc, J.Sadowska. Effect of high pressure on thermal, structural and osmotic properties of waxy maize and hylon VII starch blends. Carbohydr Polym. 2007;68(3):387-396.
13. BaoWang, DongLi, Li-junWang, Yu LungChiu, Xiao DongChen, Zhi-huaiMao. Effect of high pressure homogenization on the structure and thermal properties of maize starch. J Food Eng. 2008;87(3):436-444.
14. Czechowska-Biskup R, Rokita B, Lotfy S, Ulanski P, Rosiak JM. Degradation of chitosan and starch by 360-KHz ultrasound. Carbohydr Polym. 2005;60(2):175-184.
15. Liu H, Bao J, Du Y, Zhou X, Kennedy JF. Effect of ultrasound treatment on the biochemophysical properties of chitosan. Carbohydr Polym. 2006;64(4):553-559.
16. Awad TS, Moharran HA, Shaltout OE, Asker D, Youssef MM. Applications of ultrasound in analysis, processing and quality control of food: A review. Food Res Int. 2012;48(2):410-427.
17. Torregrosa F, Esteve MD, Frigola A, Cortes C. Ascorbic acid stability during refrigerated storage of orange-carrot juice treated by high pulsed electric field and comparison with pasteurized juice. J Food Eng. 2006;73(4):339-345.
18. Han Z, Zeng X, Zhang B, Yu S. Effects of pulsed electric fields (PEF) treatment on the properties of corn starch. J Food Eng. 2009;93(3):318-323.
19. Kaasova J, Hubackova B, Kadles P, Prihoda J, Bubnik Z. Chemical and biochemical changes during microwave treatment of wheat. Czech J FoodSci. 2002;20:74-78.
20. Ashogbon AO. Physico-chemical properties of bambara groundnut starch and cassava starch blends. Afr J Food Sci. 2014;8(6):322-329.
21. Nemtanu MR, Minea R. Functional properties of corn starch treated with corona electrical discharges. Macromol Symp. 2006;246:525-528.
22. Che LM, Li D, Wang LJ, Chen XD, Mao ZH. Micronization and hydrophobic modification of cassava starch. Int J Food Prop. 2007;10:527-536.
23. Huang ZQ, Lu JP, Li XH, Tong ZF. Effect of mechanical activation on physicochemical properties and structure of cassava starch. Carbohydr Polym. 2007;68(1):128-135.
24. Maactic-Rezzoug Z, Maugard T, Zarguili I, Bezzine EM, N.El Marzoukid, C.Loisel. Effect of instantaneous controlled pressure drop (DIC) on physicochemical properties of wheat, waxy and standard maize starches. J Cereal Sci. 2009;49(3):346-353.
25. Szymonska J, Krok F, Komorowska-Czepirska E, Rebilas K. Modification of granular potato starch by multiple deep-freezing and thawing. Carbohydr Polym. 2003;52(1):1-10.
26. Pkkahuta C, Shobsnggobi S, Varavimit S. Effect of osmotic pressure on starch: New method of physical modification of starch. Starch/Starke. 2007;58:78-90.
27. Lim ST, Han JA, Lim HS, BeMiller JN. Modification of starch by dry heating with ionic gums. Cereal Chem. 2002;79:601-606.
28. Steenehen PAM, Woortman AJJ. Super-heated starch: A novel approach towards spreadable particle gels. Food Hydrocoll. 2009;23(2):394-405.
29. Lewandowicz G, Soral-Smietana M. Starch modification by iterated syneresis. Carbohydr Polym. 2004;56(4):403-413.
30. Zia-ud-Din, Xiong H, Fei P. Physical and chemical modification of starches: A review. Critical Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2017;57(12):2691-2705.
32. Nakom KN, Tongdang T, Sirivongpaisal P. Crystallinity and rheological properties of pregelatinized rice starches differing in amylose content. Starch/ Starke. 2009;61(2):101-108.
33. Jane J, Craig SAS, Seib PA, Hoseney RC. Characterization of granular cold water-soluble starch. Starch/Starke. 198638(8):258-263.
34. Light JM. Modified food starches: Why, what, where, and how. Cereal Foods World. 1990;35:1081-1086.
35. Jane J. Preparation and food application of physically modified starches. Trends Food Sci Technol. 1992;3:145-148.
36. Chen J, Jane J. Preparation of granular cold-water-soluble starches by alcoholic-alkaline treatment. Cereal Chem. 1994a;71:618-622.
38. 38. Jacobs H, Delcour JA. Hydrothermal modifications of granular starch, with retention of the granular structure: A Review. J Agric Food Chem. 1998;6(8):2897-2905.
39. Vermeylen R, Goderis B, Delcour JA. An X-ray study of hydrothermally treated potato starch. Carbohyydr Polym. 2006;64:364-375.
40. Kohyama K, Sasaki T. Differential scanning calorimetry and a model calculation of starches annealed at 20 and 500C. Carbohydr Polym. 2006;63:82-88.
41. Shi YC. Two- and multi-step annealing of cereal starches in relation to gelatinization. Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:1097-1104.
42. Hormdok R, Noomhorm A. Hydrothermal treatments of rice starch for improvement of rice noodle quality. Swiss Soc Food Sci Technol. 2007;40:1723-1731.
43. Waduge RN, Hoover R, Vasanthan T, Gao J, Li J. Effect of annealing on the structure and physicochemical properties of barley starches of varying amylose content. Food Res Int. 2006;39:59-77.
44. Chung HJ, Lui Q, Hoover R. The impact of heat moisture treatments on rapidly digestible, slowly digestible and resistant starch levels in native and gelatinized corn, pea and lentil starches. Carbohydr Polym. 2009;15:436-447.
45. Chung HJ, Liu Q, Hoover R. Effect of single and dual hydrothermal treatments on the crystalline structure, thermal properties and nutritional fractions of pea, lentil and navy bean starches. Food Res Int. 2010;4:501-508.
46. Gomes AMM, Da Silva CEM, Ricardo NMPS, Sasaki JM, Germani R. Impact of annealing on the physicochemical properties of unfermented cassava starch (polvilho dose). Starch/Starke. 2004;56:419-423.
47. Gomes AMM, Da Silva CEM, Ricardo NMPS. Effects of annealing on the physicochemical properties of fermented cassava starch (polvilho azedo). Carbohydr Polym. 2005;60:1-6.
48. Qi X, Tester RF, Snape CE, Yuryev V, Luybov A.Wasserman, RayAnsel. Molecular basis of the gelatinization and swelling characteristics of waxy barley starches grown in the same location during the same season. Part II. Crystallinity and gelatinization characteristics. J Cereal Sci. 2004;39:57-66.
49. Qi X, Tester RF, Snape CE, Ansell RThe effect of annealing on structure and gelatinization of maize starches with amylose dosage series. Prog Food Biopolym Res. 2005;1:1-27.
50. Nakazawa Y, Wang YT. Effect of annealing on starch-palmitic acid interaction. Carbohydr Polym. 2004;57:327-335.
51. Atichokudomchai N, Varavinit S, Chinachoti P. A study of annealing and freeze-thaw stability of acid-modified tapioca starch by differential scanning calorimetry. Starch/Starke. 2002;54: 343-349.
52. Jayakody I, Hoover R. Effect of annealing on the molecular structure and physicochemical properties of starches from different botanical sources: A review. Carbohydr Polym. 2008;74:691-703.
53. Adebowale KO, Afolabi TA, Olu-owolabi BI. Hydrothermal treatment of finger millet (Eleusine coracana) starch. Food Hydrocoll. 2005;19: 974-983.
54. Jacobs H, Eerlingen RC, Clauwaert W, Delcour JA. Influence of annealing on the pasting properties of starches from varying botanical sources. Cereal Chem. 1995;72:480-487.
55. Brumovsky JO, Thomson DB. Production of boiling-stable granular resistant starch by partial acid hydrolysis and hydrothermal treatments of high-amylose maize starch. Cereal Chem. 2001;78(6); 680-689.
56. Sui Z, Shah A, BeMiller JN. Cross-linked and stabilized internal heat-moisture treated and temperature-cycled normal maize starch and effects of reaction conditions on starch properties. Carbohydr Polym. 2011;86:1461-1467.
57. Pinto VZ, Vanier NL, Klein B, et al. Physicochemical, crystallinity, pasting and thermal properties of heat-moisture treated pinhao starch. Starch/Starke. 2012;64:855-863.
58. Andrade MMP, De Oliveira CS, Colman TAD, De Costa FIOG, Schnitzier E. Effects of heat moisture treatment on organic cassava starch. J Thermal Anal Calor. 2014;115(3):2115-2122.
59. Jiranuntakul W, Sugiyama S, Tsukamoto K, et al. Nanostructure of heatmoisture treated waxy and normal starches. Carbohydr Polym. 2013;97(1):1-8.
61. Zhang B, Xiong S, Li X, Xie F, Chen L. Effect of oxygen glow plasma on supramolecular and molecular structure of starch and related mechanism. Food Hydrocoll. 2014a;37:69-76.
62. Zhang B, Zhao Y, Li X, et al. Effect of amylose and phosphate monoester on aggregation structures of heat moisture treated potato starches. Carbohydr Polym. 2014b;103: 228-233.
63. Zavareze EDR, Dias ARG. Impact of heat-moisture treatment and annealing in starches: A review. Carbohydr Polym. 2011;33(2):317-328.
64. Gunaratne A, Hoover R. Effect of het-moisture treatment on the structure and physicochemical properties of tuber and root starches. Carbohydr Polym. 2002;49(4): 425-437.
65. Huang TT, Zhou DN, Jin ZY, Xu XM, Chen HQ. Effect of repeated heatmoisture treatments on digestibility, physicochemical and structural properties of sweet potato starch. Food Hydrocoll. 2016;54:202-210.
66. Tan X, Li X, Chen L, Xie F, Li L, Huang J. Effect of heat-moisture treatment on multiscale structures and physicochemical properties of breadfruit starch. Carbohydr Polym. 2017;161:286-294.
67. Stute R. Hydrothermal modification of starches: the difference between annealing and heat-moisture treatment. Starch/Starke. 1992;44: 205-214.
70. Pretiwi M, Faridah DN, Lioe HN. Structural change to starch after acid hydrolysis, debranching, autoclaving cooling cycles, and heat moisture treatment (HMT): A review. Starch/Starke. 2018;70:1-13.
71. Khan MK, Ahmed K, Hassan S, Imran M, Ahmad H. Effect of novel technologies on polyphenols during food processing. Inn Food Sci Emerg Technol. 2018;45:361-381.
72. Knoerzer K, Buckow R, Trujillo FJ, Juliano P. Multiphysics simulation of innovative food processing technologies. Food Eng Rev. 2015;7(2):64-81.
73. Van Boekel M, Fogliano V, Pellegrini N, et al. A review on the beneficial aspects of food processing. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2010;54(9):1215-1247.
74. Iida Y, Tuziuti T, Yasui K, Towata A, Kozuka T. Control of viscosity in starch and polysaccharide solutions with ultrasound after gelatinization. Inn Food Sci Emerg Technol. 2008;9:140-146.
75. Adekunte A, Tiwari B, Cullen P, Scarnell A, O'Donnell C. Effect of sonication on color, ascorbic acid and yeast inactivation in tomato. Food Chem. 2010;122(3):500-507.
76. Nasehi B, Javaheri S. Application of high pressure in modifying functional properties of starches: A review. Middle-East J Sci Res. 2012;11:856-861.
78. Loisel C, Maache-Rezzong Z, Doublier JP. In:Tomasik P, Yuryev VP, Bertoft E, (Eds.), Starch, Progress in Structural Studies. Modifications and Applications. Polish Soc Food Technol Malopolaska Branch. 2004;466.
79. Valdramidis V, Cullen PJ, Tiwari B, O'Donnell C. Quantitative modeling approaches for ascorbic acid degradation and non-enzymatic browning of orange juice during ultrasound processing. J Food Eng. 2010;96(3):449-454.
80. Jambrak AR, Herceg Z, Subaric D, et al. Ultrasound effect on physical properties of corn starch. Carbohydr Polym. 2010;79:91-100.
81. Herceg IL, Jambrak AR, Subaric D, Brncic M, et al. Texture and pasting properties of ultrasonically treated corn starch. Czech J Food Sci. 2010;28:83-93.
82. Tiwari B, Muthukumarappan K, O'Donnell C, Cullen P. Effects of sonication on the kinetics of orange juice quality parameters. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56(7):2423-2428.
83. Majid I, Nayik GA, Nanda V. Ultrasonication and food technology: A review. Cogent Food Agric. 2015;1(1):1071022.
84. Manchun S, Numthanid J, Limmatvapirat S, Sriamornsak P. Effect of ultrasonic treatment on physical properties of tapioca starch. In T Tunkasiri (Ed.), Adv Mat Res (pp 294-297), Switzerland: Trans Tech Publications. 2012.
85. Jeyamkondan S, Jayas DS, Holley RA. Pulsed electric field processing of foods: A review. J Food Prot. 1999;62:1088-1096.
86. Considine KM, Kelly AI, Fitzgerald GF, Hill C, Sleator RD. High pressure processing-effects on microbial food safety and food quality. FEMS Microbiol Letters. 2008;28(1):1-9.