Oral and Systemic Effects of Smokeless Tobacco from the African, Asian, Latin American, European, and Middle Eastern Regions
Hau Keith, Olsheski Kathryn, Katwala Priya and Wiley Rashidah
Correspondence Address :
Rashidah Wiley, DDS
Assistant Clinical Professor, University of New England
College of Dental Medicine
716 Stevens Avenue, Portland, ME
Received on: December 19, 2016, Accepted on: January 26, 2017, Published on: February 02, 2017
Citation: Hau Keith, Olsheski Kathryn, Katwala Priya, Wiley Rashidah (2017). Oral and Systemic Effects of Smokeless Tobacco from the African, Asian, Latin American, European, and Middle Eastern Regions
Copyright: 2017 Wiley Rashidah, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits
unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Introduction: Many dental professionals are unfamiliar with the various types of smokeless tobacco products used globally and their potential contribution to the development of oral and systemic health concerns. Some of these products are not well known because they are not commonly sold in the United States of America. As the result of immigration, the population of New England is continuously changing. It is important that dentists have a basic understanding of the types of smokeless tobacco products used by patients.
Objective: The aim of this literature review is to inform dental professionals in New England about the various forms of smokeless tobacco used globally, product ingredient profiles, prevalence of use, and potential long-term oral and systemic effects.
Study Design: A literature review was conducted on the different smokeless tobacco products used by African, Latin American, European, Middle-Eastern, and Asian populations. The articles reviewed consisted of cross-sectional studies, meta-analysis, and literature reviews from the PubMed and Scopus search engines. Articles focusing primarily on smoking tobacco, abstracts and those not written in the English language were excluded from this study. This review discusses pertinent information about each product such as ingredients, prevalence of use, social or cultural applications of the products, oral and systemic manifestation and symptoms of usage.