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Research Article

An Investigation into the Impact of Targeting CTLA-4 with Ipilimumab for Metastatic Melanoma Treatment: A Literature Review

Rudra Patel, Tanya Ghai, Ankush Sharma, Aditi Das and Divya Joshi

Correspondence Address :

McMaster University,
1280 Main Street West, Hamilton,
ON, L8S 4L8

Received on: August 03, 2022, Accepted on: September 18, 2022, Published on: September 26, 2022

Citation: Rudra Patel, Tanya Ghai, Ankush Sharma, et al. (2022). An Investigation into the Impact of Targeting CTLA-4 with Ipilimumab for Metastatic Melanoma Treatment: A Literature Review

Copyright: © 2022 Rudra Patel, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  • Abstract


Skin cancer in the form of metastatic melanoma (MM) is often accompanied with a poor prognosis, due to its high propensity to spread to other bodily tissues coupled with low remission rates. Although MM is treatable, the five-year survival rate is estimated to be a mere 30%. Common treatment options include radiation, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy. Due to the current limitations associated with cancer treatment such as the use of radiation and chemotherapy, the use of ipilimumab (immunotherapy) as a novel therapeutic intervention serves as a prominent way to treat cancer patients. However, ipilimumab monotherapy is not considered the first line of treatment for metastatic melanoma. Immunotherapy targets T-cells, which are white blood cells that cause an immune response and the apoptosis of cancer cells. Thus, the development of new monoclonal antibodies (ipilimumab) can prove to be an effective way to treat cancer patients with limited risk. Anti-PD-1 therapy can also serve as an alternative treatment option for metastatic melanoma. Specifically, nivolumab, a fully human immunoglobulin G4 PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor antibody blocks PD-1 (programmed death-1) and promotes antitumor immunity. It has also been shown to be successful in the treatment of other cancers, such as renal cell carcinoma and small-cell lung cancer. Growing and progressive research indicates anti-CTLA-4 (ipilimumab) and anti-PD-1 (nivolumab) combination therapy serves as a more effective way to treat MM in comparison to anti-CTLA-4 monotherapy via the use of ipilimumab alone. This information can be utilized to advance further research in this field. To conduct our research, specific search terms were created, and relevant articles were screened on Covidence using an inclusion/exclusion criteria. The CRAAP checklist will be used for the quality assessment of the utilized sources.

Keywords: Ipiluminab, CTLA-4, Metastatic Melanoma, Monoclonal Antibody (mAb), T-cells