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Abnormal Pyschology and Clinical Psychiatry

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Research Article

Relationship between Perceived Family Violence and Aggressive Behaviour in Children Aged 11-15 In View of the Level of Education and Income of Parents in Sultanate of Oman

Mohammad Sheikh Hammoud, Duha Aboud and Yousuf saif Al-Rujaibi

Correspondence Address :

Prof.Dr.Mohammad Sheikh Hammoud
Department of Psychology
College of Education
Sultan Qaboos University
Oman

Received on: September 19, 2019, Accepted on: October 07, 2019, Published on: October 14, 2019

Citation: Yousuf Saif Al-Rujaibi, Mohammad Sheikh Hammo, Duha Aboud (2019). Relationship between perceived family violence and aggressive behaviour in children aged 11-15 in view of the level of education and income of parents in Sultanate of Oman

Copyright: 2019 Mohammad Sheikh Hammoud, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract
The study aims to identify the perceived family violence and its relationship to aggressive behaviour in children aged 11-15 in view of the level of education of parents and their income in the Sultanate of Oman. The sample of the study consisted of (1477) male and female, 778 Male 699 Female. The sample of the study was chosen by random stratified method. The measures of perceived family violence and aggressive behaviour were developed after verifying their psychometric characteristics. The results of the study were the most important of which were the absence of significant differences at the level of significance between perceived family violence and aggressive behaviour according to the educational level of the father and mother and the existence of significant differences in the level of family violence and aggressive behaviour of children between household income level Low on one hand and the high and very high family income level on the other, in favour of the low level. The correlation between the three dimensions of family violence and the dimensions of the aggressive behaviour measure was significant. As for the relationship between violence and aggression, it is high and its value is (0.52).

Keywords: Family Violence, Aggressive Behaviour
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Introduction
Since the emergence of ancient civilizations, violence has been practiced in many ways and means, so no country or territory has been delivered to it and in that way, it passes through many families at all economic, educational and religious levels [1,2]. Violence against children is one of the most prominent types of violence used by families. Modern statistical studies in the United States of America have shown that 20-50% of children are victims of family violence. In Jordan, 1,400 cases of family violence against children are received every year [3]. As social service researchers have argued, maintained that there was a violence against this category of children, specially by those who provide care for them, Camp and his colleagues confirmed this finding in
the Battered child syndrome, and this gave a great interest of other researchers in the problem in 1962 of child abuse. Statistical data showed that about one-third of children in the United States of America were subjected to violence by their families, parents constituted a source of abuse (80-100%) of abuse, In the county of Wales, statistics show that 57% of all homicides occur at home (21% for males and 68% for females).
It is estimated that between 60-70 children are killed annually by parents. Of 32,000 children in 1997 were physically vulnerable [4,5,6].
In light of these indicators, this phenomenon must receive great attention from human rights organizations. Hence, laws have been introduced to protect children. The first Declaration on the Rights of the Child was issued in 1923, the Geneva Declaration on the Rights of the Child was proclaimed in 1924. In 1959, the United Nations General Assembly adopted a Universal Declaration on the Rights of the Child, followed by the 1979 International Year of the Child and the Convention on the Rights of the Child, which undertook to protect and promote children's rights [7]. Family violence is a great danger to humanity and its effects are obvious and may not be felt by anyone because of social considerations where it is reserved. This has negative implications for society in general and for the family and for children in particular [8,2], defines family violence as the unlawful use of force by an adult family member against a member of the family [9], defines it as an attack on or abuse of a person, whether material or moral [10],defined aggressive behaviour as a behaviour expressed in any reaction intended to inflict harm or pain on others or to damage their property.
Violence takes many forms: Physical or mental violence, which is the behaviour of self-directed violence or others to cause pain, injury or suffering to the person. Examples of this kind of violence include beating, pushing, kicking, tearing, biting, burning, etc., Verbal: This type of violence is verbal, the means of violence here speak, and this type is the most severe violence since it is a threat to the psyche of the child, while it is most common in the communities, and inculcating insult, contempt, harsh words and violent embarrassment, and foul language and ridicule him in front of others, including violence Symbolic: Psychologists call it the authoritarian violence, because of the ability enjoyed by the individual who is the source of this type of violence, which is the use of expressive or symbolic methods of psychological consequences, mental and social violence, including psychological violence and emotional: The refusal of parents smile in the child's face, or his or her words are neglected, and the normal behaviour is punished, especially with respect to self-esteem. The following characteristics are described as abuse, neglect, over-responsibility, intimidation, inconsistency, threat of abandonment, expectation that are unrealistic, and isolate those who love them [4, 11-15].
At the time, the aggression takes several forms, the most important of which are: physical aggression, the aggression of the individual on others with his body organs such as beatings, kicking and biting, using his hands, legs, nails and teeth, and verbal aggression [16-18].

Study problem and questions

Family problems play a major role in giving the child a tendency towards aggression, because of hostile parenting in the family atmosphere, and the child tends to aggression through the multiplicity of authorities controlling the child’s behaviour, which usually leads to the child’s confusion, revolution and anger, or acquires aggression through the control authority which changes through the tendency of a party to the child, leading to anger and aggression, and this increases when his wishes are not met by a party [19]. Parental malpractice plays a major role in influencing a child's personality. Such practices are repulsive, despised and
shaken by personality, affect the degree of respect for his or her parents, this leads him to apply this violence to others or to conduct undesirable behaviour’s in society such as theft, crime, drugs or alcohol [20].
The rate of violence on the level of the Arab countries is one of the most significant in recent times. Iraq has witnessed a significant increase, reaching 15%, with the number of victims of violence increasing to 5445 children. In 2004, violence against children where it reached (6090) cases. In 2002, Kuwait witnessed a remarkable growth in the rate of family violence crimes. Egypt is one of the Arab countries that have seen a significant increase in the number of crimes committed against children by (18%), kidnapping (21%), torture (8%) and beating (7%). Studies also indicate high rates of violence (12%) of children and children
suffer from violence (60%), as well as physical and psychological damage (20%) under the age of 10 years, Gelbah of victims of family violence are children who come from broken families [7].
The studies that dealt with family violence showed that there was a relationship between the vulnerability of children to family violence and the occurrence of behavioural disorders, including aggressive behaviour. The harsh education that oppresses the child and his physical punishment and psychosocial development develop his aggression and make him fail to develop control of anger and aggression. The study of Neuberger (1977) showed, "that the child with violence has an aggression in his imagination to a large degree and distinctive, and has a very aggressive behaviour outside and within the school Compared with nonviolators".
The study "Green, 1978" conducted in the United States of America on a sample of (59) children were subjected to violence and (29) children have been neglected balancing the (35) children. As a control sample, that biting, burning, body injury, and attempted suicide by hanging (45%) are among those exposed to violence. The aggressive behaviour practiced in schools by students is either a result of a reflection of parental treatment such as threats, intimidation, mockery, beatings, In the revenge of the parents by turning the aggression into [17, 21-23].
According to reports issued by the Ministry of Social Development in the Sultanate of Oman and local accredited media, there are approximately 646 cases of child abuse dealt with by the child protection committees in the various governorates of the Sultanate in the first half of 2018 during the month of January and June, of which 387 Male and 259 females. The Department of Family Protection of the Ministry of Social Development has a temporary care house called Dar Al-Wefaq. It is dedicated to cases of children at risk of abuse and violence. Children are placed on the recommendation of the child protection representative and by a decision of the Public Prosecution to rehabilitate and integrate them into society. Children exposed to abuse who were accommodated in Dar al-Wefaq during the first half of the year (2018) (34) cases (16 males and 18 females). On the other hand, the child abuse cases received by the Ministry of Social Development’s “1100” child protection line during the first half of January and June of 2018 amounted to 387 cases. The abuse varied in various forms (physical, psychological, sexual, Negligence) [24, 25].
William (2006) conducted a study in schools and higher education institutions, noted that most violence behaviours are caused by students from a highly addictive family, economic or social pressures or criminal behaviour [26,27], study confirms the increased aggressive behaviour of those who report parenting methods negative than their peers who report positive parental treatment methods.
Among the studies that were applied to the Omani environment is the study of [28]. The study dealt with family violence from the perspective of the nature of life in Omani society and the specificity of culture and customs related to the Omani family. The main result of this study was the lack of community awareness of family violence by the society and its institutions in all fields to raise awareness of the problem and the mechanisms to deal with it. The results of the study also revealed the spread of the phenomenon in the Omani society and the need to deal with research and study. One of the most important proposals of this study was to conduct survey research to obtain sufficient information about this phenomenon in order to clarify laws, plans and strategies to reduce them. The current study attempted to answer the following questions:
1. Are there differences in the level of perceived family violence among children in the Sultanate of Oman attributable to the variables (educational level of the father, level of education of the mother, level of household income)?
2. Are there differences in the level of aggressive behaviour among children in Oman due to the variables (father's educational level, mother's educational level, household income level)?
3. Is there a statistically significant relationship between the dimensions of the measure of perceived family violence and the dimensions of the measure of aggressive behaviour in the study sample?

Significance of study

Significance of this study comes from the following major points:
• To highlight the phenomenon of family violence and its seriousness to children, especially children, who are resulting behavioural disorders, aggressive behaviour directed towards self and others.
• Provide the Omani library in particular and the Arabic library in general by providing knowledge and theoretical findings, the scarcity of in-depth studies related to family violence and aggressive behaviour of children in the Omani environment.
• Educate parents about the need to avoid violence within the family, and try to solve family problems in calm educational ways.
• Implement the United Nations Secretary-General's recommendations No. 57/190 that States conduct studies on violence against children in order to develop a comprehensive national plan aimed at preventing all forms of violence against children.
• Develop appropriate programs and policies that protect the child and provide him with security, stability and the ability to carry out the intervention properly and take the necessary preventive measures to address this phenomenon and treat it in light of the extent of its spread in society.
• This study may contribute to better and more realistic formulation of psychosocial assistance programs by Ministry of Education officials and psychologists and social workers in schools by taking advantage of the results to be reached.
• The results of this study may be of interest to parents and educators in the statement of the seriousness of family violence on aggressive behaviour in children, which makes them choose the appropriate educational methods to build the personalities of their children and students.

Goals of the study

The goals of this study are to identify the following:
1. Differences in the level of perceived family violence among children in the Sultanate of Oman attributable to the variables (father's educational level, mother’s educational level, family income level).
2. Differences in the level of aggressive behaviour among children in the Sultanate of Oman attributable to the variables (educational level of the father, level of education of the mother, level of household income).
3. The correlation between the dimensions of the measure of perceived family violence and the dimensions of the measure of aggressive behaviour in the sample of the study sample.

Literature review

The study of [29], aimed at determining the relationship between family violence and aggressive behaviour among secondary school students. The study sample consisted of (200) female secondary school students belonging to the Directorate General of Diyala province in Baquba city. Three tools: physical violence scale, psycho-emotional violence scale, and neglect scale were administered to the participants. The results also showed a significant correlation between family violence and aggressive behaviour in the sample.
The study of [30], aimed at detecting family violence and its relationship to aggressive behaviour among primary school students (n=100). The study showed that there is a relationship between family violence on primary school students and aggressive behaviour, and differences between primary school students in relation to family violence and aggressive behaviour.
According to the level of education of parents, and the differences between primary school pupils regarding family violence and the aggressive behaviour they receive due to the gender variable.
The study of [31], examined the relationship between family violence and anxiety among a sample of primary school students (n=260) aged (10-13) in Makkah. A scale on violence against children was administered to the participants. The study showed that there are types of family violence against children, mainly psychological violence, verbal violence, physical violence, neglect, and a relationship between family violence against children and anxiety, that is, family violence is a cause of problem. The study showed statistically significant differences for low-level families in education and economic level, indicating that children living in these households are more vulnerable to violence than children living in high-level education and better economic environment. The study of [26], identified the relationship between family violence and aggressive behaviour, the disorder of the expressive language of Taif University students, the detection of differences between the highs and lows in the economic and social level in the degree of family violence, and the degrees of aggressive behaviour and expression disorder among Taif University students. The study sample consisted of (150) female students.
The study showed that there is a positive correlation between the scores of Taif University students on the scale of family violence represented by physical violence and psychological violence and their degrees on the measure of aggressive behaviour. There are statistically significant differences between the high and low scores of high and low students in the economic and social level at Taif University on the scale of family violence represented by physical violence and psychological violence for low socioeconomic students. There were also statistically significant differences between the average scores of high and low students
at the economic and social level at Taif University on the scale of aggressive behaviour in favor of low socioeconomic students. The study of [32], showed the prevalence of behavioural problems among the visually impaired in a medium degree.
There are no statistically significant differences in behavioural problems among students with disabilities. There are no statistically significant differences in the behavioural problems of students with visual disabilities due to the difference in the educational level of the father. There are differences of statistical significance in the behavioural problems of the visually impaired. There are no statistically significant differences in the parental treatment methods followed by the father and mother towards the visually impaired due to gender differences. There is no positive correlation between behavioural problems and parental treatment methods according to the point of view of the sample members of the study.
The [33], discussed the relationship between family violence and aggressive behavior among deaf students in special education institutes and programs. The study sample consisted of 58 deaf students. The results found a positive correlation between the students's scores on the family violence scale and their scores on a scale. There were statistically significant differences between the average scores of students on the scale of aggressive behaviour due to the variable educational level of father and mother and the variable of the educational environment, age and communication methods.
Al-asaad (2014) conducted a study that aimed at exploring the extent of the phenomenon of family violence against children in the Jordanian family and to identify the most prevalent types and forms, as well as to identify the causes and factors leading to the occurrence. The study sample consisted of 170 children, the results showed that males were the main culprits or aggressors, especially fathers (59.4%). The results of the study also showed that the educational level variable was in favor of the basic education category (47.6%). Violence is widespread in families with a low level of education, (42.4%). The results of the study showed that the majority of the affected families suffer from a low economic level. The results of the study showed that most of the respondents live in rented dwellings, which is reflected on their family adjustment and stability.
These findings were proved in study of [34], who measured the degree of family violence experienced by Omani students studying at Mu'tah University during their childhood on deviant behaviour. The study sample was 150 students. The study showed that the forms of family violence experienced by Omani students during their childhood in their deviant behaviour, 55% of Omani students were subjected to various forms of violence during their childhood. Psychological violence and neglect ranked first, and the most deviant behaviour patterns of Omani students were (quarrels with non-brothers) and differences, the sex variable in the forms of Efficiency suffered by students Omanis during their childhood in favor of females, and the absence of differences due to the residential area of the sample.
A study of [35], aimed at revealing the nature of the correlative relationship between family violence directed at children and the sense of psychological unity. The study sample consisted of (100) male and female students in the first grade secondary school in rural Damascus in the cities of Kafr-Batna and Al-Mlihah. The results also revealed significant differences in family violence directed at children according to the variable level of education of the father, where family violence increases the low level of education. Father and mother.
The study of [36], aimed to uncover the relationship between family violence towards children and the emergence of aggressive behaviour in their schools through several variables:
the relationship between the parents, the educational level of the parents, and the economic level of the family. The sample of the study was 120 students. A significant positive correlation was found between family violence and the emergence of aggressive behaviour in children. In other words, the greater the violence of the family, the more aggressive behaviour, the negative relationship between the parent's educational level and family violence, the lower the educational level of the parents. Between the economic level of the family and family violence, the lower the economic level of the family, the greater the family violence [16], studied the relationship between family violence towards children and aggressive behaviour in their secondary schools and revealed the relationship between demographic changes and family violence towards children. The study sample consisted of (320) Saudi students, of whom 158 aggressive students were. The study showed that there is a statistically significant difference between aggressive and non-aggressive children in family violence in favor of aggressive children. The study also showed that there was a significant positive correlation between family violence and aggressive behaviour among children in their schools. A negative correlation between the variable relationship education father and income and between family violence, there was no correlation between the level of mother's education and income, the work of parents (mother and father) and family violence towards children.
The study [37], aimed to know the effect of physical and psychological abuse on children on demographic household variables. The study sample consisted of 279 students, 127 students and 179 students. The study showed that there were different types of abuse, The study found that there is a link between abuse and family size, i.e. the higher the size of the family, the greater the vulnerability of children to abuse.
The study of [38], aimed at examining family violence and its Effect on the mental health of the child, The sample consisted of (370) mothers and their sons of primary and middle school students in some public schools in southern Gaza, where they ranged between (12-15) years. The results of the study showed differences in exposure to physical violence based on rural or urban residence and by gender, where male children experienced more physical violence than female and according to the economic level, high income earners were less vulnerable to physical violence directed at lower income earners.
The [39], aimed to identify the variance in types of family violence, age, and sex on behavioural problems in children, through a comprehensive analytical study in a number of 1870 studies in the survey of family violence, age and sex on behaviour's Children, which have been evaluated using the Child Behaviour  Checklist (CBCE). Their findings have shown that children exposed to multiple forms of family violence are more prone to behavioural problems than children who are exposed to one form of violence. The results indicate that the older the children, the impact of family violence on them were even worse [18], aimed to determine the size of the phenomenon of family violence and its relation to juvenile delinquency among the guests of the Social Observation House in Al-Mughairy City. The study found that only 28% of the respondents were suffering from family violence. The sample is verbal violence.
The study of [40], aimed to identify family violence directed at children and its relationship to a sense of security, the study was conducted in 1248 male and female students, 643 males and 647 females of the tenth grade students in the governorate of Karak, Jordan. There was an inverse correlation between the sense of security and the forms of family violence. The study showed statistically significant differences in family violence directed at children due to the gender variable in favor of males and the variable educational level of parents in favor of lower educational levels.
The study of [27], aimed to identify whether there was a relationship between aggressive behaviour and parental treatment methods in a sample of students in the preparatory stage in Qatar. The sample of the study was 834 students. The results showed
an increase in aggressive behaviour in Qatar; their approach to parenting treatment is positive and in some dimensions the measure of aggressive behaviour. Yaxley and others [41], examined the relationship between physical violence exercised by parents within the family and aggressive behaviour’s towards self and others in school. The sample of the study was 133794 male and female students in public schools in Minnesota, between physical violence within the family by increasing levels of violence against the self or others.

Method

The present study is based on the descriptive approach most appropriate to the objectives of the study. The aim of the study is to identify the relationship between perceived family violence and aggressive behaviour in children aged 11-15 and the differences between them in view of the level of parents’ education and income in the Sultanate of Oman.

Population

The study population consists of all children in the South Batinah Governorate in the Sultanate of Oman for grades (5-9) for the academic year 2018/2019 (30542), male and female students (15566 males and 14976 females) according to Ministry of Education statistics for 2018 - 2019 represented in the Directorate General of Education in South Batinah Governorate.

Sample

The sample of the study was randomly selected. The sample size was 1477 students from the second cycle (5-9) of the basic education in South Batinah Governorate, 778 of them were males, 52.7% of females (47.3%). This sample represents about 5% of
the original study population.

Measures

In order to achieve the objectives of the study, the measures of family violence and aggressive behaviour were developed to suit the Omani society. The sample was prepared in its initial form after reviewing the available educational and psychological literature related to the subject of the study and studying the standards and batteries. Arabic and foreign studies (2008) and the aggressive behaviour studies [42,43].
In the light of the studied standards, studies and review of the literature of Arab and foreign psychological and educational, all aspects related to the concept of family violence and aggressive behaviour were identified in order to select the appropriate paragraphs. The most common items were selected on the basis of what was confirmed by previous research and studies to include the verbal, physical and psychological dimension and the respondent responds to each statement in the scales according to a three-dimensional ladder consisting of the following alternatives (apply - sometimes apply - do not apply) and the following grades were given to this scale respectively (3-2-1). The psychometric characteristics of the two parameters were verified following the introduction of the proposals of a group of experienced and specialized arbitrators from the professors of educational psychology, psychological guidance, measurement, evaluation and educators in universities and colleges in the Sultanate of Oman in light of the amendments they made in the two scales.
In order to calculate the effectiveness of the two scales, a sample of 60 students was selected from the original study community. The tools were applied to this sample in order to verify their validity to apply to the total sample members by calculating their consistency and consistency in the appropriate statistical methods between each paragraph and the total number of each scale. It was found that all paragraphs of the scales are highly effective. Thus, the number of paragraphs of the measure of family violence reached (20) paragraphs and the number of paragraphs of aggressive behaviour measure (21). The stability of the two measures was verified by the equation the result was consistency the scale of family violence (87), and for the scale of aggressive behaviour (88), this confirms that the family violence scale and the scale of aggressive behaviour consistently enjoy good.
Criteria for judging levels: In order to judge the level of family violence and the level of aggressive behaviour, a criterion has been adopted according to the arithmetic mean as follows:
1. Low level (1-1, 66).
2. The average level (1.67-2.33).
3. High level (2, 34-3).

Findings and Discussion

To answer the question of the first study, are there statistically significant differences in the level of perceived family violence among children in Oman due to the variables (father's educational level, mother's level of education, household income level)? Means and standard deviations of the total score were used on he scale of family violence as shown in (Table 1), and the oneway ANOVA analysis as shown in (Table 2) and the Scheffe's Test as shown in (Table 3).
Tables 1 and 2 shows that there are no statistically significant differences at the level of significance (0.05 α α) for the level of family violence according to the variable of the father's educational level. This means that the level of family violence in the sample of the study is similar to that of the father. The results of this study are consistent with the results of the [44], which showed that there are no differences in the level of father education. The results of this study differed from the results of the study [30], which showed differences between primary school pupils in terms of family violence according to the educational level of the parents and the [31], which showed that there were statistically significant differences in the low level of education. Children living in these households are more vulnerable to violence than children living in the higher education level and the study of Al-asaad (2014), which showed that violence is widespread in families with low educational levels, (2010) showed a statistically significant difference in family violence directed at children according to the variable of the father's educational level, where the family violence increases the father’s educational level, and the study of [36], which showed a negative relationship between the educational level of the parents (2008), which showed a negative correlation between the father's education variable and family violence, and the study of [40], which showed statistically significant differences in family violence directed towards children Attributable to variable The educational level of the parents for the benefit of the lower levels of education [45],
which revealed that families with a low level of education are more vulnerable to violence.
It seems that the method of education is not always linked to the level of education of the father, where there are no differences in family violence, and we see here that the mother is educational role far more than the role of the father and its impact on raising children.
As shown in (Tables 1 and 2), there are no significant differences at the level of significance (0.05 α α) for the level of family violence according to the variable of the mother's educational level.
The results of this study are consistent with the results of the [44], which showed that there were no differences in the level of mother’s education, and [16], which showed no correlation between mother's level of education and family violence towards children.
The results of this study differed from the results of the study [30], which showed differences between primary school pupils in relation to family violence according to the level of education of parents and the study of [31], which showed statistically significant differences for the low level of education, those who live in these families are more likely to be exposed to violence than children living in the higher education level, and the study of Al-asaad (2014), which showed that violence is widespread in families with a low level of education. Which showed a negative relationship between parents' educational level and family violence, i.e. the lower the educational level of parents, the greater the family violence, and the study of [40], which showed statistically significant differences in family violence directed at children, and the study of [45], which showed that families with a
low level of education are more vulnerable to violence.
It seems that the method of education is not always linked to the level of education of the mother as well, as there were no differences in family violence, because the Omani mother does not often use violence in raising her children.
As shown in (Tables 1and 2), there are statistically significant differences at the level of significance (0.05 α α) for the level of family violence according to the variable of the household income level. For the sake of the differences, the Scheffe's Test was calculated according to (Table 3).
Shows statistically significant differences in the level of family violence between the low household income level and the high and very high income level of the family on the other hand, in favour of the low level. This means that low-income households exercise more family violence and are statistically significant compared to High-income families.
There are statistically significant differences between the average income levels on the one hand and the high income level on the other, in favour of the middle level, meaning that middleincome students are more vulnerable to family violence than their high-income peers are.
There are no differences between the low and medium levels, between the intermediate and very high levels, and between the high and very high levels.
The results of this study are in line with the results of the [31], which showed statistically significant differences for lowlevel families, indicating that children living in these households are more vulnerable to violence than children living in highlevel families (2015), which showed that there are statistically significant differences between the average grades of high and low students in the economic level at Taif University on the scale of family violence represented by physical violence and psychological violence in favour of low-level students in the economic level and the study of [36]. There is a negative correlation between the economic level of the family and family violence i.e. , the lower the economic level of the family, the greater the family violence, the study of [16]. Which showed a negative correlation between the variable father income and family violence, and the study of cream and constant (2006), which showed differences in exposure to physical violence directed at the economic level, high income earners were less exposed to physical violence directed at low income earners, and the study of time (2003) showed that there was a negative correlation between father income variable and family violence, which found that the highest rates of neglect are among households with low economic income and the study of [45], which showed that poor households with low incomes are more vulnerable to violence.
The results of this study differed with those of [16], which showed that there was no correlation between mother's income and family violence towards children.
This is because low-income families suffer from physical and psychological pressures, which are mainly reflected in their upbringing of their children compared to those of low-income families.
To answer the second question: Are there significant differences in the level of aggressive behaviour among children in Oman due to the variables (father’s educational level, mothers level of education, household income level) The mean and standard deviations of the total score were used on the measure of aggressive behaviour as shown in (Table 4), and the one-way ANOVA analysis as shown in (Table 5) and the Scheffes Test as shown in (Tables 4-6) shows that there are no statistically significant differences at the level of significance (0.05 α α) for the level of aggressive behaviour according to the variable of the fathers educational level. This means that the level of aggressive behaviour is close to the sample of the study. The results of this study are consistent with the results of the study of [32], which showed that there are no statistically significant differences in the behavioural problems of students with visual disabilities due to the difference in the educational level of the father, and the study of [46], which showed no relationship between the aggressive behaviour and educational level of parents [47]. The results of this study differed with the results of the [30] study, which revealed differences between the children of the primary stage of aggressive behaviour according to the educational level of the parents and the [33]. Here we see that there are no differences between the students in the aggressive behaviour according to the variable level of education of the father is due to the type of education in the Omani family, as mentioned above, which is based on love, love and mercy and advice on the good, and far away from the use of violence and aggression. As shown in (Tables 4 and 5) there are no statistically significant differences at the level of significance of 0.05 α α) for the level of aggressive behaviour depending on the variable level of education of the mother and this means the convergence of the level of aggressive behaviour in the sample of the study at different educational level of the mother. The results of this study are consistent with the results of the study of [46], which showed no relationship between the aggressive behaviour and educational level of the parents [47]. The results of this study differed with the results of the [30], which showed differences between the primary school students in the behaviour of aggression according to the level of education of the parents and the study of [32], which showed significant differences in behavioural problems for the visually impaired. And the [33], which showed statistically significant differences between the average scores of students on the scale of aggressive behaviour due to the variable educational level of the mother. Here we see that there are no differences between children in the aggressive behaviour according to the variable level of education of the mother is due to the type of education in the Omani family as mentioned above, which is based on love and love and compassion and advice on good, and far away from the use of violence and aggression. Tables 4 and 5 shows significant differences at the level of significance (0.05 α α) for the level of aggressive behaviour according to the variable of household income level. For the sake of the differences, Scheffes Test was calculated according to (Table 6). Shows statistically significant differences in the level of aggressive behaviour between the level of low family income on the one hand and the high level of household income on the other, in favor of the low level. This means that students from lowincome families engage in behaviour that is more aggressive. A statistically significant comparison of students from high-income families, as well as statistically significant differences between all other income levels. This is due to the high level of physical and psychological pressure experienced by low-income families compared to lowincome families.
To answer the third question, which states the following: Is there a statistically significant correlation between the dimensions of the measure of perceived family violence and the dimensions of the measure of aggressive behaviour among the study sample To learn this, Pearson correlation coefficient was used as shown in (Table 7). Shows that the Correlation coefficient between the three dimensions of violence in the two measures is statistically significant and significant at the level of (00.01). This confirms that family violence is highly correlated with aggression, as confirmed by a study of (2017) (2017), which showed a relationship between family violence practiced on primary school students and aggressive behaviour, and the study of [26], which showed a positive correlation between statistically significant between degrees Taif University students on the scale of family violence Of physical violence and psychological violence, (2004), which showed that there is a positive correlation between the scores of the students on the scale of the family violence and their degrees on the scale of aggressive behaviour, and the study of [34], which showed that the forms of family violence suffered by Omani students (55%) of Omani students were subjected to various forms of violence during their childhood, and the study of [36], which resulted in a statistically significant positive relationship between family violence and the emergence of aggressive behaviour among children, That is, the more The violence of the family increased the aggressive behaviour, and the study of [16], which showed a significant positive correlation between the family violence and the aggressive behaviour of the children in their schools [48]. The studies that dealt with family violence have shown that there is a relationship between the vulnerability of children to family violence and the occurrence of behavioural disorders, including aggressive behaviour. The harsh education that oppresses the child and his physical punishment and psychosocial development develop his aggression and make him fail to develop control of anger and aggression. 1977, “that the child with violence has an aggression in his imagination to a large degree and distinctive, and that he has a very aggressive behaviour outside and inside the school Compared with non-violent” [21]. The results of this study differed with the results of the study of [32], which showed that there was no positive correlation between behavioural problems and parental treatment methods according to the point of view of the sample members [18], showed no relationship between family violence and aggressive behaviour (2004), which found that the relationship is weak between family violence and aggressive behaviour.

Conclusions and Practical implication
In light of the results of the present study, the following conclusions were drawn:
1. Dissemination of educational and psychological values and principles for the upbringing of children with the characteristics of mental health, increase family counselling centers and work to activate and develop their role in line with changes in the family and society.
2. It is recommended to conduct comprehensive developmental and preventive counselling programs for the prevention of family violence and the supervision of families and children victims of violence over time. These programs may be under the supervision of ministry of Education and ministry of social development. This study included some implications related to counselling specifically family and mental health counselling, that is developmental , preventive and remedial counselling programs can be conducted to diminish the prevalence of domestic violence specially that is directed against children. Other implications may be viable to psychology, and psychiatry. The implications of this study are important; because they consider two dimensions, the problem of maltreatment and violence against children and therapeutic programs used to restrict the size of this phenomenon. In addition, this study may be an impetus for researchers, parents, practitioners and other educators to deal with this phenomenon by developing counselling programs for diverse categories of children and adolescents and conducting more research on exploring important findings.
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Tables & Figures

Table 1: Means and standard deviations of the level of family violence by the three variables



Table 2: Univariate Analysis of the level of family violence according to independent variables.



Table 3: Scheffe's test results to indicate differences in the level of family violence by household income variable.


Table 4: Means and standard deviations of the level of aggressive behaviour by the three variables.


Table 5: Univariate Analysis of aggressive behaviour according to independent variables.


Table 6: Scheffe's Test on differences in aggressive behaviour according to family income


Table 7: Correlational relationship between family violence and aggressive behaviour

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