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A Split in the AKP and the Future of Creating Power in Turkey

Farrokh Dehlavi

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M.A in International Relations,
Tabriz Branch, IslamicAzad University, Bonab,

Received on: , Accepted on: , Published on:

Citation: Farrokh Dehlavi (2021). A Split in the AKP and the Future of Creating Power in Turkey

Copyright: © 2021 Farrokh Dehlavi. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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The separation of members of the Justice and Development Party is not a new issue.mWith the formation of the AKP in 2001 and during the 18 years of its rule, witnessed actions by its members to secede and establish a new party, which has not been pretty important have been witnessed. The gola behind conducting this study was to probe the reasons for the split in the AKP, to investigate the construction of power in Turkey, to examine the causes of the split in the AKP on the power structure in Turkey and to examine the experiences of the AKP to prevent splits in the ruling parties in the future. And using the descriptiveanalytical method, we are in persuit of to answer the question that what effect will the split in the Justice and Development Party have on the future of the power structure in Turkey? And we hypothesized that the split in the AKP would weaken the party and hand over power to the rival. The conclusion that can be drawn from the research is that the weakening of the position of the AKP in the first stage leads to the weakening of the liberal Islamist current in the construction of power and in the second stage to the end of the Islamist era.

Keywords: Party, Justice and Development Party, Liberalism, Islamists and schism


When the Ottoman Empire collapsed and the Turkish Republic was formed in 1923, two strong political currents emerged in Turkey, the strongest of which were the military or the Kemalists, supporters of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, the first Turkish president to push Turkey deep into Kemalism, whose most important approach is to move to the West, to become Westernized, to distance itself from religion, and this dominant political current that has been at work for decades to lead Turkey to the West and to a secular society. Alongside this trend, Islamism is deeply rooted in Turkey, although it has been less successful in defeating the Kemalists and taking power, and has gradually progressed at various times since the 1950s. And were overthrown by coup. The most important period of the Islamist rule in the 1990s and specifically in 1995, the Welfare Party led by Najmuddin Erbakan came to power and as soon as he came to power, he made his first trip to Iran and announced that he wanted to establish relations with Islamic countries. Two years after the military overthrew Arbakan and ousted him, after this party, the Islamists sought to design and create a new party, the Virtue Design Party, which also failed.

Finally, in 2002, a new party was defined as the “Justice and Development Party”, which is the main difference between the previous Islamist parties such as Virtue and Welfare, which were strongly Islamist and when they came to power. Turkey’s foreign policy path was compromised with Islamic countries and distanced from the United States and the West, but the AKP was different from the previous two parties. The most important feature of these Islamists compared to before was that they were not extremists in the sense of Islam and for the first time presented a combination of Islamism and Kemalism (both the West and the Islamic world), ie for the first time an Islamist party was formed that reconciled The two dominant political currents in Turkey and one of their most important slogans have been neo-Ottomanism. The Justice and Development Party, which emerged from the heart of the Turkish economic, social and political dynamics and from the heart of the “Welfare Party”, was able to present its way through the councils and municipalities to the parliament, government and presidency by presenting a successful practical model and gaining the people’s trust. To become the ruling power in Turkey today with the least amount of tension. They did not fall. Given that the AKP was a new and emerging party in Turkish politics, it was able to take very big steps towards the growth and development of Turkey due to its accurate knowledge of the changes in Turkish society during a period of its rule.

The first constitution of Turkey was approved by the Turkish parliament in 1924 with brief amendments to the constitution of the Ottoman period. According to the constitution, the legislature consisted of only one parliament, with the president at the head of the executive branch, and the judiciary was governed by independent courts. The first constitutional amendments were made in 1937. Later, in the years 1960-1971-1973-1974, some articles of the constitution were amended. In 1982, a draft of Turkey’s new constitution was put to a referendum, which the
Turkish people approved by more than 90 percent of the vote.

Turkey and Political Parties

After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, the new country of Turkey was formed from the ashes of this empire. In October 1923, the “Republic” system was established under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. They are also financed through donations from economic groups and existing methods in the country. Existence of clear and relatively stable laws in the general structure of the Turkish state system and, more importantly, the existence of specific ideologies, ideals and goals in the themes and statutes of the parties in order to achieve national interests, is one of the main reasons for relative stability or better institutionalization of parties. It has been within the framework of democratization of Turkey in the last 100 years [1].

Turkey’s first modern political party was founded by Ataturk in 1923 as the People’s Republic Party. Despite the political monopoly and the presence of the military in the Turkish political system, no other party emerged. But Ataturk’s death, on the one hand, and the emergence of internal political developments, on the other, paved the way for the emergence of other parties as rival parties. The first opposition party entered the arena of political rivalry with the ruling People’s Republic Party in 1946. Numerous military interventions in politics in the form of coups and their taking over the affairs of the country caused great damage to the body of Turkish political development. This was diminished by the presence of the military in the political arena due to internal developments and widespread popular protests, as well as opposition from supra-regional powers and international forums. Currently, there are several parties in the Turkish political scene, such as the People’s Republic, Justice and Development, the National Movement, the Workers, the Communists of Turkey, the Democrats, the Youth, and so on. Each party is required to run in the parliamentary elections in order to be in power, which according to the Turkish constitution requires each party to receive at least 10% of the total votes in the country [2]. Thus, political parties, as the most important institution of modern politics, play a major role in the development and political stability and stability of governments. Particularly in developing countries, political parties, in proportion to their role in institutionalizing political participation, resolving various crises of political development, national unity and cohesion, lead to political stability and stability of government. In the meantime, before the AKP came to power in Turkey, the vast majority of parties came to power with the support of the Turkish army and ran the country with the support of the military.

Justice and Development Party

The AKP has been the ruling political party in Turkey since 2002. The party has established itself as a center-right party. Since its inception, Justice and Development has established itself as a pro-Western, pro-US party in Turkish politics, supporting a liberal free market economy and Turkey’s membership in the European Union. The party’s social body encompasses a wide range of right-wing tendencies, including Islamists, Islamist reformists, conservatives, nationalists, center-rightists, and business supporters. Turkey is a country that currently has four influential parties in parliament. Of course, with the help of the recent elections in this country, the fourth party, the People’s Democratic Party led by Demirtas and from the Kurdish community, has entered the parliament. The existence of four political parties in the political system of a country puts it among the countries and systems known as the multi-party system.

A multiparty system is one in which more than two parties are the main players in the political arena. In these systems, such as France, Italy and Turkey, votes are divided between several parties and they are not far apart. . In terms of liberal democracy, these systems are stronger than others; However, in terms of political stability, the existence of multiple parties is considered a negative factor. The government is also shaken.

The ruling Justice and Development Party has not only been the dominant party for three consecutive terms, but has also won an absolute majority of votes in previous terms; Without the need for an alliance with other parties, he was able to form a government, and even with the help of this parliamentary power; He was able to make changes in the constitution and tried to implement the issue of changing the parliamentary system to the presidency after this election.

In fact, the social base of the parties in Turkey is constantly changing and moving towards other currents, and this situation is especially noticeable among the center-right and Islamist parties. The political conditions of the election tend to lean towards modernist parties. However, the situation in the Turkish left is more organized. In recent decades, secular parties and groups have always faced internal challenges and have caused some instability in the political and economic spheres. In general, political and social conditions, economic prosperity, intermittent
or chronic crises, etc. are among the factors that affect public attention to one group or the loss of trust in another group.

In such circumstances, testing the position and experience of governing other parties, the emergence of the AKP and the absence of a negative record of party leaders in public opinion were important and influential factors in the public’s acceptance of this Islamist party. The experience of the extremists of the Welfare Party, as well as the inefficiencies of other parties, caused the people to turn their attention to the moderate parties; The slogans and goals of the Justice and Development Party in various fields were a good sign of moderation and respect for the rights of the people and a well-written program to solve internal problems and dilemmas [3].

The Justice and Development Party, which emerged from the heart of Turkey’s economic, social and political dynamics and from the heart of the “Welfare Party”, By presenting a successful practical model and gaining the trust of the people, it was able to make its way to the parliament, the government and the presidency through councils and municipalities, and with the least tension became the ruling power in Turkey today. He says that the flexibility of the party activists is in accordance with the internal conditions of Turkey and the developments around it, so that they never fell into the name of a party and after the dissolution of the “Welfare Party” they changed their name to the “Virtue Party” and banned its activities. They chose the letter of the “Justice and Development Party”Relying on their own forces, they easily found a replacement for the leadership, such as Arbakan, and people like Abdullah Gül, the current Prime Minister, and Recep Tayyip Erdo ناغ an, the current Prime Minister of Turkey, who tasted the “prey of the prisoner” during the transition from the Welfare Party to the Justice and Development Party. In order to get a better picture of the path to power of the Islamist-political movement in the Turkish Valley, it should be remembered that the “Welfare Party” in the 7891 elections could have won 2.7 percent of the vote. But in the 1991 election, the vote rose to 71 percent, and the party won control of 82 municipalities. As a result, the party’s vote share rose to 4.12 percent in 5991, and the Welfare Party in 6991 was able to take over the government in a coalition cabinet and pursue tacit reforms in the following areas:
1. Advance and Establishing mass democracy and ending the Kemalist centralist system of government;
2. Restoring power to parliament and ousting the National Security Council;
3. Linking the principles of politics with Islam and turning to the Islamic world while maintaining relations with Europe.
People turn to Islamist “Justice and Development Party” in most Turkish cities to run the country’s cities. Their successful performance led the party, led by Recep Tayyip Erdogan, to a landslide victory in the 2002 parliamentary elections, with 2.43 percent of the vote, gaining a decisive majority of 463 out of 055 seats in parliament and government. To take. [4].

Justice and Development Party Policies in Turkey
These policies include the actions taken by the AKP after taking power in domestic and foreign policy.
Domestic policies
In 2002, when the AKP won the election, it made the establishment of economic stability and membership in the European Union the principles of its domestic and foreign policy. It became very much part of the party, but it also controlled the country’s army under Erdogan. This party, by adopting the Islamic democratic method, moved far away from the Erbakan method. Of course, it should be noted that Although the party used liberal tactics in domestic and foreign policy, most secularists believe that the party still maintained a strategy of serving Islamic law through politics. Until 1946, the Turkish political system was oneparty, and after that year, with the formation of right and middle parties, the country’s political atmosphere entered a multi-party stage.

The first period of the Turkish political system was not polar because the dividing factor within the political system was not so prominent. During this period, although the Islamists (from the 1970s onwards) formed political parties and even for a year and a half formed a coalition government with the center-right party (Tansu Chiller’s right-wing party) (1996-97), with the removal of Erbakan and The dissolution of the Welfare Party in the white coup of February 28, 1997, made it practically impossible for the Islamist parties to maneuver.

On the other hand, the Kurdish forces in Turkey were not allowed to form a party from the very beginning of the republic and were always suppressed by the central government as a separatist force. Thus, different secular parties, right and left, were at the forefront of the Turkish political system. The right and the left, which could not polarize Turkish society into two major discourses. The secular school also remained confined to the judiciary and the military, and thus the Turkish political system became bipolar. Since the establishment of the Justice Party and the development of the Turkish political space, it has the following characteristics:
1. The polarity of the political and social atmosphere in this country
2. Changing the discourse of Westernism to Europeanism
3. Relatively stable political stability and overcoming the period of fragile coalition governments
4. Economic stability and sustainable economic growth and development
The above characteristics changed the situation of the Turkish political and social system. Due to the change in the situation, the ruling Justice and Development Party tried to take full advantage of the polarization of the political space and the alienation of the institutions defending perfectionism, and to strengthen its political and economic base due to its strong social base. Implementing reforms in the framework of EU membership, most of which were aimed at reducing the authority and veto power of the institutions defending Kemalism (the army and the judiciary). Due to the prevailing political atmosphere in Turkey, due to the prevailing conditions of “zero-sum game”, it caused the authority and power of the institutions defending Kemalism to decrease and increase the power of the ruling party [5].

The ruling AKP’s re election victory in the July 2007 elections and the election of Abdullah Gül Yar as Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdo ناغ an’s leader and Prime Minister of Turkey as the 11th President of Turkey. Çankaya Presidential Palace also expanded, and for the first time in the history of the Republic of Turkey, the President was elected not from the military or secular politicians, but from within a conservative Islamist party. On the other hand, the ruling Justice and Development Party, during its tenure, was able to be active in the economic and media spheres in addition to the political sphere, and took control of more than half of the country’s media. Within the framework of the criteria related to EU membership, the Turkish army changed from a military force determining the internal political conflicts to a professional army defending the independence and territorial integrity of the country.

These issues led the secularists to claim that only a very strong faction of secularism could oppose the party. Turkish political institutions. In 1996, for example, Erdogan told parliament that democracy was not our goal, but only a means to serve the Shari’a. It is in the direction of deepening Islamism in Turkey. However, it is noteworthy that with the effectiveness of this party, religious minorities gained more freedom of action. Most of the country’s religious minorities are in favor of the AKP. The relationship between the AKP and the Kurds in this country is an issue that is very important. In the 2007 election, the party’s vote doubled thanks to the support of formerly pro-Kurdish eastern and southeastern cities. The Justice and Development Party’s policy of tolerance towards the Kurdish issue was a very important reason for this support. Of course, religious groups such as the Naqshbandiyya group also played a very important role; Because the Naqshbandiyya group, one of the most important Islamic organizations in the Kurdish region of Turkey, strongly criticizes the Kurdish Democratic Society Party. Its influence is growing, unlike the Kurdish Democratic Society Party, whose influence in the Kurdish region has diminished. The reason for this can be seen in the support of the Kurdish Democratic Society Party for the PKK and the support for the independence of the Kurdish region of Turkey.

Another issue that plays a very important role in shaping the domestic policy of the AKP is its relationship with the military. The Turkish army considers itself responsible for protecting secularism and other achievements of the Ataturk era. For the Turkish military, there was no difference between a threat from the political left or a religious right. Any group, faction or party that wanted to go beyond the limits of the constitution faced military resistance. After World War II, Turkey had a free and democratic electoral experience. During this period, the army staged a coup almost every 10 years. But after a short time he returned power to the civilians.
From the point of view of politicians, there are two systems in Turkey and in general, two prevailing ideas are:
1. A view that believes in peaceful coexistence between a secular system of government and the preservation of Islamic and sharia standards.
2. A view that believes that there is no compromise and coexistence between the rules of secularism and Islamic values, and this view is the dominant thought in secular circles.
But two years after the victory of the AKP in Turkey, the government and the army entered new challenges that seemed very serious. But the Erdogan government introduced reforms to the military that greatly diminished the role of the military, challenging its extra-legal, extra-governmental role [5].

Foreign policy
The slow evolution of the AKP has immensely affected its foreign policy. Despite the Welfare Party and the National Salvation Party, whose lack of ties with the West was the most important element of their foreign policy, it resumed seeking to maintain relations with the West, especially with the European Union. In addition, with the US invasion of Iraq in 2007, the country sought to play an active role in the Middle East, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and the Balkans. Of course, maintaining ties with the West and playing a role in other regions, such as the Middle East and Central Asia, was also very important before the AKP came to power, paid a lot of attention to Central Asia. However, deepening relations with the West and expanding its presence in important regions of the world, such as the Middle East and Central Asia, became very important with the rise of the AKP and under the influence of Davutoglu’s strategic depth doctrine, who later became Erdogan’s
foreign policy adviser. The most important and central point of this doctrine was that the national values of a nation in international relations are influenced by the geostrategic position of that nation. Accordingly, Turkey, due to its very sensitive geopolitical position and Bosphorus control, can play a very important role in the Middle East and in relation to the West. The party’s political views are based on a “social liberal” approach. Although a collective understanding of libertarianism is evident in the party program, it does suggest that the party’s philosophy is based on human rights. It is transparent that their program endorses the new liberal economy and insists on the importance of the government withdrawing from economic activities.

The foreign policy strategy of the AKP is the most important issue in the performance of this party. Ataturk’s theory of “peace at home, peace in the world” is defined in the party statement as the framework of the party’s foreign policy. The first foreign policy priority of the AKP is based on Turkey’s membership in the European Union. The party considers Turkey part of Europe, which is why they believe they should join the European Union. The second priority in the foreign policy of this party belongs to the Islamic countries and the third priority belongs to the Turkish countries.

The leaders of the Justice and Development Party emphasize the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and declare that secularism and the strategy of “peace at home, peace in the world” are the basic principle of world and social peace and in the sense of state neutrality. In return for Turkey’s religious beliefs and friendship with all nations of the world. Contrary to the traditional principles of the Kemalists and the military, the strategists of the ruling Justice and Development Party have balanced Turkey’s foreign policy and entered into regional crises. They are playing a role in the Middle East by modeling the theory of “zero problems with neighbors” and believe that because of Turkey’s strategic depth, Ankara needs to have a stronger presence in the Middle East.

In fact, this theory is in line with the interests of the Justice and Development Party elites and, on the one hand, serves the security interests of the European Union. In the theory of minimizing problems with neighbors, the power of diplomacy, bargaining and persuasion is given importance. The military has no role in this theory, and the AKP strategists and diplomats have the initiative. In addition, following the military’s growing skepticism about the ruling party balancing Turkey’s foreign policy, another theory called “creating a security belt in Turkey’s periphery” has been drawn up by Ankara’s diplomatic apparatus. In this theory, the role of the military is more than that of diplomats, which is also in the interests of the United States. Basically, the Ankara-Washington relationship is a security, strategic and strategic relationship. In the meantime, what is important in these theories is to balance Turkey’s foreign policy by maintaining a constructive interaction with the political structure opposed to the AKP and the European Union and the United States. According to Ankara, these theories provide the basis for strengthening Turkey’s model and norms to control the behavior of Middle Eastern countries and increase Ankara’s political and geopolitical role. Without creating a conflict between the interests of the leaders of Ankara and the Kemalists, the European Union and the United States. Of course, the issue of terrorism, Islamic fundamentalism, northern Iraq, and the Kurdish crisis will open the door for the military in Turkey to play its role in Turkey’s foreign policy strategies for the time being. However, the role of the military has diminished since its application for membership in the European Union [6]. If Turkey wants to become a regional and global power, it needs to solve its problems with its neighbors. Therefore, the basic principles of the policies of the Justice and Development Party are:

1. Consolidation of democracy inside
2. Playing a pivotal role in the region as well as creating a model for Muslim and Arab countries in the region
3. Multilateralism and attention to Arab and Muslim countries
4. Zero problems policy with neighbors
5. Playing the role of mediator in various regional and global issues
6. Efforts to balance regional (Middle East) and Europe-US policies

Given these issues, it can be said that Turkey has started a new approach in foreign policy after 2002 under the banner of the AKP. In addition to Europeanism, the party also adopted an East-facing approach to engaging with China, Russia, Central Asia, and the Caucasus and the Middle East. Orientalist foreign policy means that Turkey must penetrate the territory of the Ottoman Empire, but not with soldiers, but with Turkish politics, economy and manufactured goods. In this regard, the developments in the Arab world opened the field for the best implementation of this Turkish strategy. Of course, it is better to say that it was Turkey’s clever response to these developments that created new opportunities for the country. The fact is that Turkey’s approach to the Middle East is understandable in the context of its political economy and foreign policy. This gives Turkey’s Middle East policy a cultural, normative, economic and political security dimension. Among the goals of this country in order to achieve its goals in the Middle East, the following can be mentioned.
1. Establishment of joint political advisory committees at the level of Turkish and Arab foreign ministers
2. Cooperation Agreement between Turkey and the Arab League in 2004
3. Formation of the Turkish-Arab Assembly at the meeting of the Foreign Ministers of the Arab League in September2006 (Ghaem Maghami, 2010: 1).

Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan, Baku-Tbilisi-Erzurum and Baku-Tbilisi- Kars oil and gas transmission lines; It has made Central Asia even more important to the AKP in the eyes of the ruling elite. However, the party did not provide a specific solution to accelerate the stalled project and did not comment on the possibility of Russia’s participation and cooperation in the implementation of this project or the possibility of such a project affecting relations with Russia.

(Vahedi, 2009: 241-242) According to Professor Haidar Çakmak, “Turkey has the power of covert influence and influence, which is becoming more and more effective in these areas and is expanding.” (Vahedi, 2008: 229-230).

The Caucasus region is discussed in two parts: the announcement of the positions of the Justice and Development Party, which are: 1- The Turkish world 2- Energy policies. The party believes that any crisis or conflict in the region affects Turkey’s interests, and therefore wants to resolve crises such as Nagorno-Karabakh and Abkhazia, and to make constructive efforts. Establishing political, historical and economic ties is considered a policy of return to the Caucasus. The party claims that economic cooperation with the region will lead to regional security.

Attention to the rights of Turkic ethnic groups living as minorities in non-Turkish countries has also been included in the policies of the Justice and Development Party in the Caucasus. (Anonymous, 2011: 1)

This region is very important from the economic point of view in general and energy in particular for Turkey, and many investments have been made in this region, and the implementation of large projects of the Caspian Sea energy pipeline to Europe can be evaluated in this regard.

The signing of agreements in various fields and with a triple framework (Turkey-Georgia-Azerbaijan) is also seen in party policies. Also, due to the continuous contact and increasing cooperation with Georgia, the port of Batumi, Georgia, opened its airport on various flights to Turkey, and a trip to this Georgian city is considered as a domestic flight to Turkey.

(Vahedi, Pishin: 245)

Regarding Turkey’s relations with the United States during the rule of the AKP, it should be noted that Turkey not only did not cooperate with the United States on issues such as the invasion of Iraq in 2003, as well as the imposition of international sanctions and sanctions against Iran. Took. The Turkish parliament’s refusal to allow the United States to invade Iraq through its territory has affected relations between the two countries for years. According to experts, no event has had a more devastating effect on Turkish- American relations than the Iraq war.

(Vaezi, 2009: 60) Regarding the imposition of international sanctions against Iran, the neo-Ottoman politicians from the very beginning stood in front of the United States or in fact confronted this country.

The AKP pursues specific goals for EU membership, one of which is to fulfill the party’s election promise to join the European Union. At the heart of the decision to hold early elections on November 3, 2002, was disagreement among members of the coalition government over reform issues in Turkey for EU membership. The majority of voters voted unconditionally for Turkey’s membership in the European Union. In this way, the AKP also proposed joining the European Union. In addition, Turkey’s entry into the European Union will not only lead to its isolation among Islamic countries, but will also increase the weight of Islamic countries in the European Union. The previous concern that Turkish Islamic identity will be eroded in Western culture is also untrue. Because the democratization of Turkey according to the Copenhagen criteria has even led to the emergence of Muslim democrats. The most important goal of the AKP is for civil society to take precedence over the garrison government. The AKP has tried to show that its military should act like European countries or India.

And he should not interfere in political affairs. The party even tried to limit the privilege of military courts, which was opposed by the Constitutional Court. However, despite four coups in Turkey, the AKP has put strengthening civil society on its agenda. (Athari, 1389: 1) It seems that the members of the Justice and Development Party are strongly influenced by the ideas of Fethullah Gulen regarding their interest in joining the European Union. The Gulen movement, led by Turkish Islamist groups, seeks to make good use of the international opportunities created by the process of globalization, to mitigate the effects of the repressive policies of Kemalism; In addition, the movement opposed for the first time anti-Western sentiments within Islamist movements, stating that Turkey’s integration into the European Union could not erode Turkish identity; In this regard, although the military ostensibly supports Turkey’s accession to the European Union to demonstrate its commitment to Ataturk’s principles of Westernization, many see this as the starting point for the military’s position. And they know the ideology of Kemalism. Thus, the AKP is using the EU reform package as a tool
to change the interpretation of secularism in Turkey, as well as to expand the opportunities for Islamist groups in Turkey [7].

The split in the Justice and Development Party and the reasons that lead to that spilt
One of the main reasons for the split in the Justice and Development Party The arrival of the new Democracy and Progress-Dava party in Turkey, led by 52-year-old politician Ali Babacan and former President Abdullah Gul, will once again complicate the country’s internal situation. Ali Babacan himself was one of the founders of Erdogan’s Islamist Justice and Development Party. He served as the country’s economy minister from 2002 to 2007 and then as Turkey’s foreign minister. He was vice president from 2009 to 2015, but last year he had a disagreement with Erdogan and his team and resigned from the AKP. He played an important role in pulling the Turkish economy out of the crisis and flourishing between 2003 and 2012. One of the reasons Ali Babacan cited for founding a new party was the existence of “serious differences” between himself and the policies of Erdogan’s Justice and Development Party [8].

Babacan has counted on attracting a significant portion of Erdogan’s conservative members, as well as those dissatisfied with the consequences of the 2018 currency crisis. In a meeting with Erdogan a few months ago, he announced that he no longer saw any mental or emotional connection between himself and the ruling party and had only gone to say goodbye to him. The newly formed party is expected to be a serious competitor to Erdogan’s “Development and Justice Party” and attract a significant portion of its members. Although Babajan’s party does not want to transfer members of parliament to his party, the party is expected to open its doors to independent representatives.

One of the key factors in the future position of Ali Babacan’s newly formed party is the implicit support of former Turkish President Abdullah Gul for the party. Abdullah Gul is especially popular among the social body of the AKP. In the event of a candidacy in the next presidential election, Gol could even count on the support of some of Turkey’s secular voters. The next presidential election in Turkey will be held in 2023. The leader of the Democracy and Development Party believes that the party was formed with the support of the people. We listened to the people’s request for change and renewal, and we entered this path with a moral responsibility. Turkey can no longer continue with an unacceptable political mindset. The time has come for innovation and change. His party members are united around universal values that aim to restore fundamental principles, freedoms, democracy and the rule of law. Creating a viable Turkey today is the most important need of the citizens. This is impossible with the current Turkish government. With this policy, it is not possible for people to achieve prosperity. Now the policy of fear rules the country. Introducing the party, which is accompanied by several former cabinet ministers, he said that the party’s activities to resolve the “Kurdish issue” would pave the way for the necessary democratic system.

We aim to draft a new constitution in Turkey. We will respond to the demands of citizens based on beliefs and culture based on justice. Any action that leads to the projection of people will be canceled. We will resolutely fight the discourses of hatred that harm human dignity and threaten the whole of democracy. Evidence shows that “criticism of the presidential political system, return to the parliamentary system, Turkey slipping into economic difficulties, reducing youth unemployment, improving the economic situation within a month, attention to freedom of expression, the release of Salahuddin Demirtas, former leader of the People’s Democratic Party Prison, “Using the opinions of others and consulting with experts in various fields, Turkey’s respect for an inclusive and maximum democracy, cutting off pressure on journalists and youth, lifting restrictions on the media and political opposition” are the most important views of this new Turkish party. Give. [8].

The announcement of a new party could further divide the pro Erdogan Muslim Conservative Front. Especially recently, another of Erdogan’s old allies, former Turkish Prime Minister Davutoglu, left Erdogan and formed a political movement called the Future Party. Like Babajan, he declared the existence of a new party to oppose the culture of “monarchy” and called for a new constitution [9-11].

The Justice and Development Party, led by Recep Tayyip Erdogan, regained power by using its influence over institutions against the opposition. And nationalist sentiments to gathered supporters and take action against Cyprus ‘claims to natural gas fields in the Middle East, the fight against the Kurdish Workers’ Party (PKK), operations against Kurdish militants in southeastern Turkey, and Kurdish centers in Syria. And helped Iraq to gain the right-wing extremist vote, as well as from the moderate beliefs of the Hanafi religion to gain the support of Sunni Islamic ideas. And made America. In the foreign policy debate, he showed a penchant for Russia. Some experts on Turkish issues believe that
after the military coup project against the AKP and Erdogan, due to the continuation of the traditional policies of the AKP with the West, especially the US and Trump, now the project of splitting the AKP and forming new parallel parties. It comes from the Western-Hebrew-Arab triangle, and they are seeking to oust Recep Tayyip Erdogan from the AKP. Certainly, in the current situation, such a thing seems very difficult, for this reason, the issue of the split of the mentioned party is raised and followed up. Ahmet Davuto وا lu, Ali Babacan, Abdullah Gül are trying to form political parties, splitting from the Justice and Development Party. Certainly, the party will experience a reduction in support and a split within the party during the separation of former members, the establishment and operation of new parties. Over the years, the AKP has been able to gain power in Turkey with the support of the British court, although today it has lost about 10% in terms of the number of members. Homeland, Right Way, Health, Left Democrat and…, can be repeated in the case of the disintegration of the AKP. Following the announcement of the dismissal of Professor Ahmet Davuto, along with three members of parliament from the Justice and Development Party, Davuto وا lu and his supporters set up, registered and launched a new splinter party called the Future Party.

Former Turkish Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoglu, the foreign policy theorist of the AKP, Erdogan’s closest aide, joined opponents and critics of Erdogan’s policies after opposing his government plans. Davutoglu is in favor of Turkey’s accession to the European Union. He described the formation of the new party as both a responsibility and a necessity. He describes his party’s fundamental principles as a mixture of “secular liberalism” and “religious pluralism” and does not accept the supremacy of any religious or secular structure in the Future Party. It also claims that the Future Party is based on a belief in a democratic parliamentary system. Prohibition and its main focus is the field of fair economy and sustainable welfare. Definateky, such motos were usually chanted by autocratic parties before coming to power, but after gaining power, they followed a dictatorial policy. Dr. “Ali Babacan”, Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Economy, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Erdogan’s former ruling governments also joined due to deep differences in: principles, values, positions, with the views of the party led by the camps, ended in the ruling party. Babacan also plans to form a liberal party with all political spectrums, including religious, in cooperation with former Turkish Foreign Minister Abdullah Gul. He also announced: “I will announce the title of the newly established party, its members after araiving at a conclusion and at a final stage.” Regarding his party’s priorities, Ali Babajan considers and mentions three crucial concepts: justice, freedom, and economy, and introduces his new party in line with the spread of democracy and the economy of liberalism, which differs from the policy line of the AKP. The constitution of the new party is expected to be approved before 2020.


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